Bio-batteries have a very bright future ahead of them |
as test productions and research have been increasing over recent years.
They serve as a new form of energy that is proving to be environmentally friendly,
as well as successful, in producing and reserving energy.
Although the batteries are still being tested before being commercially sold,
several research teams and engineers are working
to further advance the development of these batteries.
One corporation consistently working on the advancement of these bio batteries is Sony.
In fact, Sony has created a bio battery that gives an output power of 50 mW (milliwatts).
This output is enough to power approximately one MP3 player.
Sony, however, is planning to continue their research and development
on bio batteries for commercial use. In the coming years, Sony plans to take bio batteries
to market, starting with toys and devices that require a small amount of energy.
Several other research facilities, such as Stanford and Northeastern, are also in the process
of researching and experimenting with bio batteries as an alternative source of energy.
Since there is glucose in human blood, some research facilities are
also looking towards the medical benefits of bio-batteries
and their possible functions in human bodies. Although this has yet to be further tested,
research continues on the subject surrounding
>BIO BATTERIES POWERED BY SUGAR
A table listing the seventeen rare earth elements, their atomic number and symbol, the etymology of their names, and their main usages (see also Applications of lanthanides) is provided here. Some of the rare earth elements are named after the scientists who discovered or elucidated their elemental properties, and some after their geographical discovery.
|21||Sc||Scandium||from Latin Scandia (Scandinavia).||Light aluminium-scandium alloys for aerospace components, additive in metal-halide lamps and mercury-vapor lamps, radioactive tracing agent in oil refineries|
|39||Y||Yttrium||after the village of Ytterby, Sweden, where the first rare earth ore was discovered.||Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser, yttrium vanadate (YVO4) as host for europium in TV red phosphor, YBCO high-temperature superconductors, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), yttrium iron garnet (YIG) microwave filters, energy-efficient light bulbs, spark plugs, gas mantles, additive to steel|
|57||La||Lanthanum||from the Greek "lanthanein", meaning to be hidden.||High refractive index and alkali-resistant glass, flint, hydrogen storage, battery-electrodes, camera lenses, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries|
|58||Ce||Cerium||after the dwarf planet Ceres, named after the Roman goddess of agriculture.||Chemical oxidizing agent, polishing powder, yellow colors in glass and ceramics, catalyst for self-cleaning ovens, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries, ferrocerium flints for lighters|
|59||Pr||Praseodymium||from the Greek "prasios", meaning leek-green, and "didymos", meaning twin.||Rare-earth magnets, lasers, core material for carbon arc lighting, colorant in glasses and enamels, additive in didymium glass used in welding goggles, ferrocerium firesteel (flint) products.|
|60||Nd||Neodymium||from the Greek "neos", meaning new, and "didymos", meaning twin.||Rare-earth magnets, lasers, violet colors in glass and ceramics, didymium glass, ceramic capacitors|
|61||Pm||Promethium||after the Titan Prometheus, who brought fire to mortals.||Nuclear batteries|
|62||Sm||Samarium||after mine official, Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets.||Rare-earth magnets, lasers, neutron capture, masers|
|63||Eu||Europium||after the continent of Europe.||Red and blue phosphors, lasers, mercury-vapor lamps, fluorescent lamps, NMR relaxation agent|
|64||Gd||Gadolinium||after Johan Gadolin (1760–1852), to honor his investigation of rare earths.||Rare-earth magnets, high refractive index glass or garnets, lasers, X-ray tubes, computer memories, neutron capture, MRI contrast agent, NMR relaxation agent, magnetostrictive alloys such as Galfenol, steel additive|
|65||Tb||Terbium||after the village of Ytterby, Sweden.||Green phosphors, lasers, fluorescent lamps, magnetostrictive alloys such as Terfenol-D|
|66||Dy||Dysprosium||from the Greek "dysprositos", meaning hard to get.||Rare-earth magnets, lasers, magnetostrictive alloys such as Terfenol-D|
|67||Ho||Holmium||after Stockholm (in Latin, "Holmia"), native city of one of its discoverers.||Lasers, wavelength calibration standards for optical spectrophotometers, magnets|
|68||Er||Erbium||after the village of Ytterby, Sweden.||Infrared lasers, vanadium steel, fiber-optic technology|
|69||Tm||Thulium||after the mythological northern land of Thule.||Portable X-ray machines, metal-halide lamps, lasers|
|70||Yb||Ytterbium||after the village of Ytterby, Sweden.||Infrared lasers, chemical reducing agent, decoy flares, stainless steel, stress gauges, nuclear medicine|
|71||Lu||Lutetium||after Lutetia, the city which later became Paris.||Positron emission tomography – PET scan detectors, high refractive index glass, lutetium tantalate hosts for phosphors|
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